Benefits of organic farming (जैविक खेती के फायदे)
Organic farming is the most environmentally compatible form of agriculture. Yet ‘organic’ means more than just farming without synthetic chemicals. A holistic philosophy and a farming cycle as complete as possible, with a diverse structure, are the principles and prerequisites of successful organic farming. The natural resources of soil and water are used in an environmentally compatible manner and are preserved for future generations.
The Organic Farming Action Programme 2017-2020
The objective of the Organic Farming Action Programme is to promote and significantly develop organic farming by means of priority measures
- As a particularly high number of organic farms are active in Uniq areas, they also obtain a quarter of the compensatory allowance for less-favoured areas.
- Bonus for organic production, the so-called ‘Biobonus’ (higher subsidy, better assessment in the selection process) in connection with aids granted for investments, processing and marketing, education, information, and sales.
A holistic philosophy and a farming cycle as complete as possible, with a diverse structure, are the principles and prerequisites of successful organic farming. The natural resources of soil and water are used in an environmentally compatible manner and are preserved for future generations.
What is Organic Farming? (जैविक खेती क्या है )
Characteristic Farming works in congruity with nature rather than against it. This incorporates using procedures to fulfill extraordinary collect yields without harming the regular living space or the all inclusive community who live and work in it. The techniques and materials that regular farmers use are abbreviated as takes after:
To keep and build good soil structure and fertility:
- Recycled and composted crop wastes and animal manures
- The right soil cultivation at the right time
- Crop rotation
- Green manures and legumes
- Mulching on the soil surface
To control pests, diseases and weeds:
- Careful planning and crop choice
- The use of resistant crops
- Good cultivation practice
- Crop rotation
- Encouraging useful predators that eat pests
- Increasing genetic diversity
- Using natural pesticides
How We Make Organic Manure For Natural Farming (जैविक खाद बनाने के नुस्खे )
- Better farm income and sustainable livelihood: – Increased farm productivity, reduced expenses on imported farm inputs, better income for farmers and reduction of poverty in the rural sector.
- Improved Health: – Protected health of farmers, consumers and public in general.
- Environmental Protection: – Enhance soil fertility and farm biodiversity, reduce pollution and destruction of the environment as well as prevention of further depletion of natural resources.
- Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience to climate change: – Improved resiliency to disaster risks and climate change vulnerabilities caused by human interventions and naturally induced hazards through diversification and less exposure to external inputs.
- Social justice: – Meeting the basic material needs and improving standard of living for all, upholding human rights, gender equality, lobar standards and the right to self-determination.
Components of organic farming (जैविक खेती के अंग )
Generally natural farming segments can be divided into five categories:
- Green Manures.
- Crop Rotation.
- Organic Manure (FYM, compost, Vermicompost).
1. Green manure (हरी खाद )
Commonly called as Cover crops, which is used to improve soil health by growing the plants in the same field and are cut, ploughed into soil just before flowering.
Crops which can be used as green manure are:
Sunhemp, Diancha, Sesbania, other crops includes Black Gram, Green Gram and Cowpea can also be used as their roots have high capacity of storing Nitrogen [N].
- Adding green manures 2-3 weeks before main crop plantation.
- Green manuring crop such as Daincha (ढैचा), Sunhemp (Crotajaria juncea), etc. can be grown before the Rice Season.
- They provide sufficient quantity of organic matter in turn helps in development of good soil structure.
- Once in 2 years brings excellent crop development.
- Subabul, Glyricidia, Sesbania etc. are grown on border or used as fencing of farms.
- Herbage also used in green manure by cutting it.
- Green manure helps in increasing apparent use efficiency of Potassium [K] when combined with 50% of the recommended doze of NPK.
- It also has residual effect on the next crop and minimizes the adverse effects of Al3+ and Fe2+ in acidic lateritic soils through the chelation of these ions by organic molecules liberated from FYM in the course of mineralization.
- Green manuring through Sesbania aculeate is equivalent to 60 kg inorganic N/ha.
- Incorporation of Mungbean after picking pods results in savings of 60 kg inorganic N/ha for the rice crop
- Alley cropping to Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Acacia magium can provide 100-300 kg N/ha per year
- Pruning of Sesbania rostrata planted as hedgerows provides 3-4 t/ha dry matter after decomposition, it releases an average of 70 kg N/ha
2. Crop Rotation (फसल का चक्रिकरण)
Crop rotation refers to the production of various crops on a specific land over time. Or we can say that crop rotation is a deliberate way to deal with choosing which crop to plant where in your vegetable garden from one year to next. The objectives of crop rotation are to help maintain organic soil fertility and to avoid soil-borne diseases and some soil dwelling bugs, for example, corn rootworms. The strategy behind this is that new crop you put in the field will be from other family. The thought behind this is to change what nutrients the crop utilizes, and the pests it attracts. So, the bugs never get use to one field since you are always showing signs of change it. Regarding soil, each crop needs unique supplements. Changing the yield each year prevent diminishment in any one nutrient in your field.
Benefits of crop rotation:
- Disease control
- Erosion control
- Reduced commercial risk
- Improved biodiversity
- Improved soil fertility and structure
- Increased yield
- Weed control
- Increased Soil Organic Matter
- Pest control
Here we show you some best crop rotation examples:
- Soya bean – Barsim/Mustard/Chickpea.
- Tomato/cabbage – Cauliflower/Peas/Corn/Garlic.
- Rice – Wheat/Potato/Mustard/Pulses.
- Peanut – Rabbi Sorghum, Soya bean – Wheat, Potato, Mung bean,
Chilly + cotton, corn + mong.
- Soya bean – Wheat/Mustard/Mung/Psyllium husk (isabgol).
- Rice – Wheat/Barsim, Rice – Potato, Ladyfinger or Rice – Garlic, sorghum – Mung.
- Corn – Cotton, chilly – Onion or Brinjal – Sunflower.
- Sorghum – Peas – Ladyfinger.
- Carrot/Rice, Potato, Rice, Tomato/Rice – Rice (Kharif), French bean/Rice.
3. Organic manure (जैविक खाद )
Various organic manures include:
- Vermi Compost
- Press Mud
- Biogas Slurry
Methods of FYM Compost /Vermicompost (केंचुए की खाद)
Earthworm’s manures are very popular as it increases levels of Nitrogen to 30kg – 40kg per acre per year. It’s Adaptability to every crop and high nutrition value makes its production among commercial subsidiary activity now. Hence, generating extra income
- Compost should be uniformly incorporate with soil.
- It should be applied 15-20 days before sowing or transplanting so that manure goes under ammonification and nitrification process.
- Allocation of unrecompensed manure should not be applied.
- Soil should have sufficient moisture at the time of application so that proper microbial activity takes place. Usual rate of application ranges between 2-5 tones/ha for most of the crops.
- Farmyard manure refers to the decomposed mixture of dung and urine of farm animals along with their litter and left over material from roughages or fodder fed to the cattle.
- FYM is one of the components of INM as it is a cheap and easily available source of organic nutrients.
- Integrating FYM with inorganic fertilizer, scientists are getting very response of the crop.
- Application of this source of organic improves physical, chemical and biological condition of the soils.
4. BIOFERTILIZER (जैविक उर्वरक )
Biofertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganism which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, colonizes the inside of the plant and advances development by expanding the supply or accessibility of essential nutrient to the host plant. Biofertilizers are not manures. Biofertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilizing Phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth promoting substances. Utilization of biofertilizers is one of the imperative segments of incorporated nutrient administration, as they are financially savvy and renewable source of plant nutrient to supplement the chemical fertilizer for economical farming. A few microorganisms and their relationship with crop plants are being exploited in the generation of biofertilizers.
Various biofertilizers are:
- Azolla: Azolla is free floating water greenery that floats in water and fixes atmospheric nitrogen in relationship with nitrogen settling blue green alga Anabaenaazollae. Azolla fronds comprise of sporophyte with a floating rhizome and little covering bi-lobed leaves and roots. Azolla is thought to be a potential biofertilizer as far as nitrogen commitment to rice.
- Silicate solubilizing bacteria (SSB): Microorganisms are capable for corrupting silicates and aluminum silicates. During the metabolism of microorganisms a few natural acids are delivered and these have a double part in silicate weathering.
- Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM).
- Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): The gathering of microbes that colonize roots or rhizosphere soil and advantageous to crops are referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria.
- Azotobacter: It is the vital and well known free living nitrogen settling aerobic bacterium. It is utilized as a Bio-Fertilizer for all non leguminous plants particularly rice, cotton, vegetables and so forth. Azotobacter cells are absent on the rhizosplane but rather are bottomless in the rhizosphere region. The absence of organic matter in the soil is a limiting variable for the expansion of Azotobaceter in the soil.
- Liquid Bio-fertilizer: There are three ways of using Liquid Bio-fertilizers;
- Seed treatment
- Root dipping
- Soil application
- Stimulates development and grants green colour which is a resemble of healthy plant.
- Helps usage of potash, phosphorous and different supplements.
- Support plumpness and succulence of fruits and escalate protein percentage.
- Rhizobium: This belongs to bacterial group and the traditional example is advantageous nitrogen fixation. The microorganisms infect the vegetable root and shape root knobs inside which they lessen sub-atomic nitrogen to ammonia which is reality used by the plant to deliver profitable proteins, vitamins and other nitrogen containing compounds.
Advantages of biofertilizers are (जैविक उर्वरक के फायदे )
- Soil and plant Health: Most biofertilizers comprise of microorganisms that are engaged in the decomposition of organic matter and the breakdown of minerals into a solvent form that is helpful to plants.
- Environmental health: One of the fundamental favorable circumstances of utilizing biofertilizers is to reduce the need of other forms of fertilizer, a large number of which have negative impacts in nature.
5. BIOPESTICIDES (जैविक कीटनाशक )
Biopesticides are sorts of pesticides got from such regular materials such as animals, plants, microbes, fungi, virus (Microbial origin) and certain minerals. For instance, canola oil and baking soda have pesticidal applications and are considered as biopesticides. Biopesticides are generally less poisonous than regular pesticides. Biopesticides are generally less poisonous than regular pesticides. Biopesticides are generally target pests and related organisms. On the other hand traditional pesticides that may also affect creatures for instance insects, birds and mammals.
Basically Biopesticides come under three main categories:
- Biochemical pesticides: They are normally occurring substances that control bugs and pests by non-toxic components. On the other hand customary pesticides, that straightforwardly executes or kills the pests. Biochemical pesticides incorporate substances that meddle with mating, for example, insect’s sex pheromones, and in addition different scented plant extracts that attract pests to traps.
- Microbial pesticides: It comprise of a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, fungus, infection or protozoan) as the active ingredient. Microbial pesticides can control a wide range of pests, although each different active ingredient is moderately specific for its target pest. For instance, there are parasites that control certain weeds and other growths that execute particular insects.
- Plant-Incorporated-Protectants: (PIPs) are pesticidal substances that plants deliver from hereditary material that has been added to the plant. For instance, researchers can take the gene for the BT pesticidal protein and bring the gene into the plant’s own particular hereditary material. At that point the plant, rather than the BT bacterium, makes the substance that kills the pests. The protein and its hereditary material, however not simply the plant, are managed by EPA (Environmental Protection agency).
In conclusion we can say that Biopesticide is becoming popular because of its favorable circumstances related with the environmental security, target-specificity, adequacy, biodegradability and appropriateness in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. That’s why; biopesticide is one of the promising contrasting options to manage environmental pollution. In spite of the fact that potential use of biopesticides in ecological wellbeing is outstanding, it has gaining popularity because of the growing demand of organic food.