Organic Fertilizers (जैविक उर्वरक )
Organic Fertilizers are the best nourishment a plant can get. It can be effectively made at home, by reusing our every day kitchen squander. It cleans our kitchen as well as does miracles to our garden. Along these lines, next time, when you design a garden… choose normal manures and see the supernatural occurrence that it does to the kitchen cultivate.
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, animal feces (manure), human stools, and vegetable substances (such as residues of compost and crop). Naturally organic composts include meat processing, peat, compost, slurry, and animal waste from guano.On the contrary, most of the fertilizers used in commercial farming are extracted from minerals (e.g., phosphate rock) or industrially produced (eg ammonia). Organic agriculture, a system of farming, allows certain fertilizers and modifications and rejects others; This is also different from this topic
Organic ingredients in the garden are environmentally friendly with conventional chemical fertilizers. Find out what are organic fertilizers and how you can use them to improve your garden.
In general, half nutrients can be used in the organic fertilizer component in the first year, and the rest is released gradually in the coming years so that the soil can be food and conditioning.
Type of organic fertilizer (जैविक उर्वरक के प्रकार )
What is the best organic fertilizer to use? There are many organic fertilizers to choose from. Every purpose can be a chemical fertilizer, but it is not present in the biological side of horticulture. Various organic fertilizers have added soil to different nutrients and ingredients. Your essential ingredients are completely in your garden and the plants are growing. Plant-based fertilizer plant-based fertilizers are broken faster than other organic, but generally, they are offered more by soil conditioning than actual nutrients. These materials, such as alfalfa help in food or manure, drainage for poor soil and add moisture retention.
Other plant-based fertilizers include: cottonseed meal, the bowl of cotton, cover crops, green manure cover crops, seaweed, compost tea, animal-based fertilizer, animal-based fertilizers, such as compost, bone meal or blood meal, adds much nitrogen to the soil. It is very good for strong growth in leafy plants and early weeks of horticulture.
Additional animal-based fertilizers for the garden include:
● Fish emulsion
● Milk urea (urine)
● Manure tea
Mineral based fertilizer(खनिज आधारित उर्वरक)
Mineral-based fertilizers can be added to the soil, as well as to increase or decrease the required pH level for the development of healthy plants are some of these organic fertilizers:
● Epsom salt (magnesium and sulfur)
Unlike commercial chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers for gardens are generally made of one material and may be tailored to your garden’s specific nutritional requirements. Types of organic fertilizers can come from plants, animals or mineral sources, depending on the chemicals of your garden.
Why does one need Organic Fertilizers?(हमें जैविक उर्वरक क्यों चाहिए)
We utilize composts as a fundamental contribution to cultivating likewise called plant sustenance. You many have the best soil to begin with, however with time the supplements in it drain and should be recharged, time to time contingent upon the phase of plant development sapling and stretching (vegetative), sprouting/blooming lastly the organic products bearing stage.
Enhanced Soil Fertility – Organic inputs(मिटी की गुणवत्ता बढ़ाना )
ensure that the soil is fertile for a long time. Not only does it adds nutrients to the soil, but also improves the quality and structure of it which in the long run increases water retention and drainage . Organic fertilizers are easily biodegradable and thus do not cause environmental pollution. The natural fertilizers enhance the moisture retention in the soil, conducive for life in it (drought resistant).
A good Fertilizer is the secret to any successful garden
and Organic Fertilizer holds many more benefits than its traditional peers. Organic variants are often cost-effective, easy to find or source and, perhaps most importantly, offer sustainable, green ways to enhance your gardening prowess.“Organic Fertilizer”. Why? Because they are free from chemicals & its hazards, environment-friendly and hold much more benefits when compared to chemical fertilizers.
How to make organic fertilizers at home:-
- 15 kg cow/buffalo dung(भैंस का गोबर)
- 15 liter cow/buffalo urine(भैंस का मूत्र)
- 1kg jagerry.(गुड़)
- 1kg flour of any pulse.(दाल)
- 1kg soil(मिट्टी)(it must be from the root of pipal tree).
Steps to follow:-
Mix them all and boil it for few hours and make it cool in a shadow for 15 days. Then add 200 liter of water.
How to use:-
Spray this in empty land before sowing seed. If crop already present in the field then spray this mix to crop. Spray it after 21 days regularly.
- 6 times more powerful and stronger than D.A.P.
- More earthworms are produce in the land.
- If earthworms are in the land, ultimately soil become soft, which allow each drop of water go inside.
- Moreover earthworm dung is the most beneficial for soil more than anything else.
- Every earth worm works 24*7in the soil and each earthworm give birth to almost 1 lac new earthworms.
HOW TO MAKE ORGANIC FERTILIZER
Making your own natural organic fertilizer is both easy, cheap and often uses components you already around your home. Organic material from left over food and grass clippings to organic fertilizers made from plant or animal remains.
Plant based fertilizers include, compost, cottonseed meal, soybean, kelp, seaweed, wood ash or alfalfa while the animal based contain fish emulsion, fish meal, blood meal, animal manure, bat guano, worm castings or bone meal.
• Vinegar Fertilizer
• Lawn Fertilizer and Weed Fertilizer
- Fill 5-gallon container with 2/3 sections of new grass clippings.
- Top off with a couple of water
- Enable blend to sit for 3 days at room temperature and mix the blend at any rate once every day.
- Strain the fluid and dilute this fluid manure with a balance of water.
- Splash this rich nutrient content blend over leaves for quick growth of plants.
• Banana Peels
• Manure utilization
- Treated the soil with compost of goat, chicken or horse and cows is effortlessly accessible with individuals who raise them.
- Utilize matured and treated the soil compost for best outcomes.
- Fill little, recyclable, porous material bags with fertilizer.
- This manure needs to soak for 3-4 days in a shaded region before it is applied to the soil before planting and the bag can be disposed of or covered.
• Cat & Dog Food As Organic Fertilizer
Organic dog food can be recycled and used as a fertilizer. It contains proteins and micronutrients to benefit the soil.
- When you set up the soil for planting, spread this food into the soil with water. The food rots normally in few days.
- The food should be covered with a cardboard for keeping all creatures including your pets from eating the food before it deteriorates. For this the soil should be secured with cardboard and after that a wet layer of mulch. The wet layer of cardboard and mulch prevents development of weeds.
- The soil ought to be completely watered for 3 weeks to a month.
- One thing kept in mind that pet food which contains chemicals and sodium in high substance (over 3%) should be avoided, because this will be destructive for the plants.
• Egg Shells
- Wash the eggshells.
- Squash them and work the pounded pieces into the soil particularly close tomato or pepper plants.
- The calcium in eggs avoids spoiling of roots.
- Eggshells contain calcium carbonate (93%).
- These can be utilized as a soil conditioner trade for lime and work better on sparing plants seeds.
• Fish Tank Water Fertilizer Recipe
Used fish tank water contains excessive nitrogen which is ideal for plants. In any case, be careful of expelling all new conceived fish from the water. Additionally, the substance ought not to originate from a salt water tank. Apply grimy and untreated water from the fish tank on plants.
How agricultural scenario changed (कैसे कृषि पारदर्शिया बदल गया )
Now we show you how agriculture drastically changes before and after the involvement of chemical fertilizers. Economic relation between rural and urban area- Pre green revolution.
Economic relation between rural and urban area- During green revolution era.
Before our dependence on chemical fertilizer, sufficient organic manure was used in agriculture. The soil health and sustainable production was retained intact up to certain period due to availability of excessive amount of organic carbon soil.
In the initial stages of chemical fertilizer application, the reduction in the use of organic manure started. The effectiveness of chemical fertilizer was pronounced due to availability of huge amount of residual organic carbon that was deposited in the soil for years. During this period crop production used to increase with additional use of chemical fertilizers.
Economic relation between urban and rural area-current situation.
The excessive uses of chemical fertilizer along with almost non application of organic manure were considered as the prime reason for causing the permanent damage to the soil. For dong so, the declination of crop productivity could not be checked even by putting additional chemical fertilizer in the field.
HOW TO MAKE VERMICOMPOST
The Fundamental Component Needed For:
Home Vermicompost Unit:
- An Aerated Container
- A wooden bed
- Couple of thousand Red Worms
- The bed could be of the desired length about 75 cm high × 120 cm wide.
It is a process of turning Organic Debris into Worm Castings. The worm castings are essential to the fertility of the soil. The castings contain high measures of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium.
Worm Castings contains: 5 times the accessible nitrogen, 7 times the accessible potash, and 1 ½ times more calcium than found in great topsoil. You’ll be working with a dynamic process, you’ll need to carry out certain maintenance procedures both to keep the worm population healthy and to obtain and utilize the end product.
Materials needed for preparation of Vermicompost are:
- Vegetable waste.
- Hotel refuse.
- Weed from biomass
- Agricultural waste.
- Crop residue
- Urban and rural waste.
- Leaf litter
Some Steps in the process are:
- Sieving and shredding – Decomposition can be accelerated by shredding raw materials into small pieces.
- Blending – Carbonaceous substances such as sawdust, paper and straw can be mixed with N-rich materials such as sewage sludge, biogas slurry and fish scraps to obtain a near optimum C: N ratio. A varied mixture of substances produces good quality compost, rich in macronutrients and micronutrients.
- Half digestion – The raw materials should be kept in piles and the temperature allowed reaching 50-55 °C. The piles should remain at this temperature for seven to ten days.
- Maintaining moisture, temperature and pH – The optimum moisture level for maintaining aerobic conditions is 40-45 percent. Proper moisture and aeration can be maintained by mixing fibrous with N-rich materials. The temperature of the piles should be 28-30 °C. Higher or lower temperatures reduce the activity of micro flora and earthworms. The height of the bed can help control the rise in temperature. The pH of the raw material should not exceed 6.5-7.
Preparation of vermicompost:
- Cattle dung is collected from cow shelters.
- The dung is kept for about 7-10 days to let it cool.
- Beds/rows of dung and crop residues/leaves, etc. are made about 1 m wide, 75 cm high and with a distance of 75 cm between two rows.
- In the beds/rows, crop waste such as leaves, straw etc. is layered alternatively with the dung to thus make a height of about 75 cm. The beds are kept as such for 4-5 days to cool.
- Water is sprinkled to let the compost able matter cool down.
- Earthworms are put on the top of the manure row/bed. About 1 kg worms in a meter-long manure row are inoculated.
- It is left undisturbed for 2-3 days after covering with banana leaves. Covering with jute bags or sacks is not recommended as it heats the manure bed.
- The bed is opened after 2-3 days. The upper portion of about 10 cm of manure is loosened with the help of a suitable hand tool.
- The bed is covered again. The worms feed on an upper bed of about 10 cm. This portion becomes vermicasted in about 7-10 days.
- This portion (vermicasted manure) is removed and collected near the bed. Another upper portion of 10 cm is loosened and covered again with the leaves.
- Moisture is maintained in the bed by regular sprinkling of water.
- The loosened portion of the manure is vermicasted in another 7-10 days and is removed again.
- Thus, in about 40 days, about 60 cm of the bed is converted into vermicompost and is collected on 3-4 occasions.
- The remaining bed of about 10 cm in height contains earthworm mixed manure.
- Fresh manure mixture/organic residues, etc. are again put on the residual bed containing earthworms of about 10 cm and the composting process is restarted.
- The manure collected from the bed is freed of worms through sieving. Uncomposted or foreign matter is also removed in this way.
- The screened manure is bagged and used or sold as required.
Five basic things that compost worms need:
- An hospitable living environment, usually called “bedding”
- A food source
- Adequate moisture (greater than 50% water content by weight)
- Adequate aeration
- Protection from temperature extremes
For vermicompost creation, the surface staying worm alone ought to be utilized. The worm, which lives underneath the SOIL, isn’t suitable for vermicompost generation.
- SITE SELECTION:
Vermicompost can be delivered in wherever with shade, high dampness and cool. Empty dairy cattle shed or poultry shed or unused structures can be utilized. On the off chance that it is to be delivered in open zone, shady place is chosen. A covered rooftop might be given to shield the procedure from direct daylight and rain. The waste stored for vermicompost generation ought to be secured with moist gunny packs.
A concrete tub might be built to a height of 2½ feet and an breadth of 3 feet. The length might be settled to any level depends on the measure of the room. The base of the tub is made to incline like structure to empty the abundance water out of vermicompost unit. A little sump is important to gather the deplete water.
Worm bed (3 cm) can be prepared by placing after saw dust or husk or coir waste or sugarcane trash in the bottom of tub / container. A layer of fine sand (3 cm) should be spread over the culture bed followed by a layer of garden soil (3 cm). All layers must be moistened with water.
- WORM FOOD:
Manure worms are enormous eaters. Under perfect conditions, they can consume in more of their body weight every day, in spite of the fact that the general dependable guideline is ½ of their body weight every day.
Common food contains:
- Poultry manure
- Human waste
- Cattle manure
- Pre-composted food wastes
- Food scraps
- Legume hays
Advantages of vermicompost production:
- Vermicompost is free from pathogens, toxic elements, weed seeds etc.
- Vermicompost minimizes the incidence of pest and diseases.
- Vermicompost is rich in beneficial micro flora such as a fixers, P- solubilizers,cellulose decomposing micro-flora etc in addition to improve soil environment.
- Vermicompost is rich in all essential plant nutrients.
- Provides excellent effect on overall plant growth encourages the growth of new shoots / leaves and improves the quality and shelf life of the produce.
- It enhances the decomposition of organic matter in soil.
- It contains valuable vitamins, enzymes and hormones like auxins, gibberellins etc.
- It neutralizes the soil protection.
- It prevents nutrient losses and increases the use efficiency of chemical fertilizers.