There are basically three organic methods for pest control.

  1. Cultural Method.
  2. Mechanical Method.
  3. Physical Method. 

CULTURAL METHODS(पारम्परिक तरीके)

  1. Mix Cropping(मिस्रण फसल)

Mixed cropping, also known as inter-cropping or co-cultivation, as the name suggests it involves planting two or more of plants with co-operation of each other in the same field mainly leguminous crops are inter cropped with monocot crops. In general, the theory is that planting multiple crops at once will allow the crops to work together providing resistance and wealth of environmental benefits. Mixed cropping incorporate the balance of input and outgo of soil nutrients, the suppression of weeds and bugs, the resistance of atmosphere extremes (wet, dry, hot, frosty), the suppression of plant disease, the expansion in general productivity, and the administration of rare assets without limitations degree.

Examples are.

Sorghum (चारा)with Red Gram(अरहर)

Sugarcane(गना) with Soybean(सोयाबीन)

Maize (मक्का)with Red Gram(अरहर)

Banana(केला) with Cowpea(लोबिया)…. And many more …

Factors affecting:

Crop Duration

Growth

Height

Spreading of Roots

2. Proper Weeding(उचित निराई)

Some tips for weed control:

  • Mulching holds moisture and doesn’t let weeds a chance to flourish in your garden. Daily papers, Straw, rejected leaves, and manure can be utilized to cover ground. For better mulching, spread newspaper over the ground and cover it up with the 2-inch layer of manure and leaves.

Benefit:

  • It avoids splashing of pathogens with rain water from soil to upper portions of plants.
  • Decreases Water loss due to evaporation
  • Prevent soil erosion
  • Reduce weed growth as light does not reach to them.

Examples:

  • Controls Wilt disease in Black Pepper, Tomato, Chilly
  • Keep away Aphids due to reflection from Silver color shining plastic mulch.
  • Decreases Mosaic in Watermelon
  • Try not to throw weeds in a compost pile, unless you can give temperature more than 120F, which is required to damage weed seeds.
  • While planting a garden bed make a point not to leave excessively space between plants. Tight garden beds limit weeds.
  1. Proper Irrigation(उचित सिंचाई)

Irrigation has been a central element of agriculture. Irrigation is the controlled use of water for cultivating purposes through artificial system to supply water requirement not fulfilled by rainfall. Irrigation is utilized to aid the developing of rural harvests, support of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry territories and during times of deficient rainfall. It additionally has a couple of different uses in crop production, which incorporate ensuring plants against ice, stifling weed development in grain fields and anticipating soil consolidation. We have to learn four basic things:

  • When to water
  • How much to water
  • How often to water
  • Adjustment of weather
  • Planting at proper spacing
  1. Early Planting(जल्दी रोपण)

Planting your crop early has following benefits:

  • Less insect and disease pressure
  • Longer day health and pollination
  • Higher yield potential
  • More stored soil pressure
  • Lower temperature during pollination 

MECHANICAL METHODS(यांत्रिक उपाए)

 Mechanical control is the administration of pests by physical means, for example, the utilization of an obstruction (e.g., screens or line covers), catching, weeding or expulsion of the pest by hand. It might likewise include changing the physical conditions in a given zone, for instance, changing the temperature to make a territory horrible for pests. Or we can say that Lessening of pests by methods for manual gadgets is called mechanical control. This include following types:

  1. Rope dragging in field: Rice case worm hatchling pupates on the off chance that readied by the leaves which stays connected to the plant and can be expelled by the dragging rope. Because of this case can fall in the stagnating water and expelled effectively.
  2. Sacking the fruits: Fruit sucking moth on citrus or pomegranate suck the juice with the assistance of strong which can be avoided by stowing fruits.
  3. Tin collars on stem: rodent can hop on coconut tree and harm the fruits. When we put the tin collars on stem they can not climb.
  4. Shaking the tree: Adults of white grub assembles on neem or babul tree so by shaking tree they can be gathered and crushed.
  5. Beating with stick: When swarm of beetle comes, it can be beaten by stick.
  6. Trenching the field: Pest like armed force worm, grasshoppers walk from one field to other which can be anticipated by trenching in field.

 PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PEST CONTROL(भौतिक उपाए)

This method utilizes physical components of environment – for instance humidity, temperature, light to smooth bugs population or harm. Physical control of insect pests has become prominent recently because of development of resistance to pesticides, the need to avoid insecticide residues, and for economic reasons.

Various physical methods are:

  • Electric discharge: – Electric discharge is used as a means of killing insects in apparatus, such as the Insect-0-cutor but its use requires a means of bringing the insect within suitable range, e.g., light, forced draught, natural locomotion.
  • Light induced phenomena: – It may be possible by artificial light regimes to alter    the photoperiodic responses of insects, particularly moths. This can lower frequency of mating or reduce fertility, alter diapauses responses or cause flights suitable for efficient control by chemical means. Few of the lights traps are:

a. Fluorescent light trap:

b. Solar pest control lamp trap:

c.Home Made Light trap

  • Adhesives: – Adhesives for example, grease bands and different restrictive items, have been utilized in the past as pest control specialists but at present find their main use as trapping agents for population surveys.
  • Temperature control: – The reduction of commodity temperature is widely used to reduce the reproductive capacity of stored product insects or as a quarantine measure against some pests in export fruit. Temperature reduction of bulk commodities can be effected by natural means (e.g., natural cooling by ventilation assisted by well-designed stores), by forced aeration or by refrigeration.
  • Environmental gas control: – This method of insect control has recently received much attention for stored products although the exact parameters for control and kill of the various pest species have still not been adequately defined. The normal interstitial atmosphere of a commodity can be replaced by various proportions of nitrogen, 91 carbon dioxide and oxygen.
  • Relative humidity control: – The control of relative humidity through drying is widely practiced as an insect control measure in stored products. Many storage pests cannot reproduce at ambient relative humidity of < 50%. Low relative humidity greatly assists the insecticidal effect of controlled atmospheres and it appears that death under CO, rich atmospheres may often be directly related to water loss from the insect
  • Sound responses
  • Physical shock: – The abrading, crushing and disturbing effect of grain turning can significantly reduce the populations of stored product pests.
  • Ionizing radiation.
  • Air movement: – In field situations it is an important parameter capable of use in insect control. The distribution, particularly of smaller insects, is much influenced by wind patterns resulting from the position of windbreak barriers. Fairly high air velocities can prevent larger insects such as houseflies from entering a building.